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馬丁·路德·金最后演講:我已達至峰頂
I've been to the mountaintop

[2019年1月21日] 來源:MEMPHIS, Tenn.  作者:Martin Luther King   字號 [] [] []  

這是馬丁.路德.金博士的最后一次演講(3 April 1968 Memphis, Tennessee),次日他被暗殺。在他發表這篇著名的演講的時候, 他預感到了自己的命運,因為在他來孟菲斯之前已經收到了各種各樣的死亡恐嚇。但是他用行 動作出了回答。他說不要問我幫了別人自己會有什么后果,而要問“如果我不幫助別人,別人會 有什么后果”。 演講的題目出自《圣經》以色列人出埃及的典故,摩西帶領以色列人擺脫埃及法老的奴役,去往哪上帝應許的“流奶與蜜之地”–迦南。摩西被上帝帶到山頂上,看到了那“應許之地(” land),但他卻被告知,他自己不能到達。


調整語速:

Thank you very kindly, my friends. As I listened to Ralph Abernathy and his eloquent and generous introduction and then thought about myself, I wondered who he was talking about. It"s always good to have your closest friend and associate to say something good about you. And Ralph Abernathy is the best friend that I have in the world. I"m delighted to see each of you here tonight in spite of a storm warning. You reveal that you are determined to go on anyhow.


Something is happening in Memphis; something is happening in our world. And you know, if I were standing at the beginning of time, with the possibility of taking a kind of general and panoramic view of the whole of human history up to now, and the Almighty said to me, "Martin Luther King, which age would you like to live in?" I would take my mental flight by Egypt and I would watch God"s children in their magnificent trek from the dark dungeons of Egypt through, or rather across the Red Sea, through the wilderness on toward the promised land. And in spite of its magnificence, I wouldn"t stop there.


I would move on by Greece and take my mind to Mount Olympus. And I would see Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Euripides and Aristophanes assembled around the Parthenon. And I would watch them around the Parthenon as they discussed the great and eternal issues of reality. But I wouldn"t stop there.


I would go on, even to the great heyday of the Roman Empire. And I would see developments around there, through various emperors and leaders. But I wouldn"t stop there.


I would even come up to the day of the Renaissance, and get a quick picture of all that the Renaissance did for the cultural and aesthetic life of man. But I wouldn"t stop there.


I would even go by the way that the man for whom I am named had his habitat. And I would watch Martin Luther as he tacked his ninety-five theses on the door at the church of Wittenberg. But I wouldn"t stop there. I would come on up even to 1863, and watch a vacillating President by the name of Abraham Lincoln finally come to the conclusion that he had to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. But I wouldn"t stop there.


I would even come up to the early thirties, and see a man grappling with the problems of the bankruptcy of his nation. And come with an eloquent cry that we have nothing to fear but "fear itself." But I wouldn"t stop there. Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty, and say, "If you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the 20th century, I will be happy."


Now that"s a strange statement to make, because the world is all messed up. The nation is sick. Trouble is in the land; confusion all around. That"s a strange statement. But I know, somehow, that only when it is dark enough can you see the stars. And I see God working in this period of the twentieth century in a way that men, in some strange way, are responding. Something is happening in our world. The masses of people are rising up. And wherever they are assembled today, whether they are in Johannesburg, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; Accra, Ghana; New York City; Atlanta, Georgia; Jackson, Mississippi; or Memphis, Tennessee -- the cry is always the same: "We want to be free."


And another reason that I"m happy to live in this period is that we have been forced to a point where we are going to have to grapple with the problems that men have been trying to grapple with through history, but the demands didn"t force them to do it. Survival demands that we grapple with them. Men, for years now, have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it"s nonviolence or nonexistence. That is where we are today.


And also in the human rights revolution, if something isn"t done, and done in a hurry, to bring the colored peoples of the world out of their long years of poverty, their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole world is doomed. Now, I"m just happy that God has allowed me to live in this period to see what is unfolding. And I"m happy that He"s allowed me to be in Memphis.

I can remember -- I can remember when Negroes were just going around as Ralph has said, so often, scratching where they didn"t itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. But that day is all over. We mean business now, and we are determined to gain our rightful place in God"s world.


And that"s all this whole thing is about. We aren"t engaged in any negative protest and in any negative arguments with anybody. We are saying that we are determined to be men. We are determined to be people. We are saying -- We are saying that we are God"s children. And that we are God"s children, we don"t have to live like we are forced to live.


Now, what does all of this mean in this great period of history? It means that we"ve got to stay together. We"ve got to stay together and maintain unity. You know, whenever Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery in Egypt, he had a favorite, favorite formula for doing it. What was that? He kept the slaves fighting among themselves. But whenever the slaves get together, something happens in Pharaoh"s court, and he cannot hold the slaves in slavery. When the slaves get together, that"s the beginning of getting out of slavery. Now let us maintain unity.


Secondly, let us keep the issues where they are. The issue is injustice. The issue is the refusal of Memphis to be fair and honest in its dealings with its public servants, who happen to be sanitation workers. Now, we"ve got to keep attention on that. That"s always the problem with a little violence. You know what happened the other day, and the press dealt only with the window-breaking. I read the articles. They very seldom got around to mentioning the fact that one thousand, three hundred sanitation workers are on strike, and that Memphis is not being fair to them, and that Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor. They didn"t get around to that.


Now we"re going to march again, and we"ve got to march again, in order to put the issue where it is supposed to be -- and force everybody to see that there are thirteen hundred of God"s children here suffering, sometimes going hungry, going through dark and dreary nights wondering how this thing is going to come out. That"s the issue. And we"ve got to say to the nation: We know how it"s coming out. For when people get caught up with that which is right and they are willing to sacrifice for it, there is no stopping point short of victory. We aren"t going to let any mace stop us. We are masters in our nonviolent movement in disarming police forces; they don"t know what to do. I"ve seen them so often. I remember in Birmingham, Alabama, when we were in that majestic struggle there, we would move out of the 16th Street Baptist Church day after day; by the hundreds we would move out. And Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come; but we just went before the dogs singing, "Ain"t gonna let nobody turn me around."


Bull Connor next would say, "Turn the fire hoses on." And as I said to you the other night, Bull Connor didn"t know history. He knew a kind of physics that somehow didn"t relate to the transphysics that we knew about. And that was the fact that there was a certain kind of fire that no water could put out. And we went before the fire hoses; we had known water. If we were Baptist or some other denominations, we had been immersed. If we were Methodist, and some others, we had been sprinkled, but we knew water. That couldn"t stop us.


And we just went on before the dogs and we would look at them; and we"d go on before the water hoses and we would look at it, and we"d just go on singing "Over my head I see freedom in the air." And then we would be thrown in the paddy wagons, and sometimes we were stacked in there like sardines in a can. And they would throw us in, and old Bull would say, "Take "em off," and they did; and we would just go in the paddy wagon singing, "We Shall Overcome."


And every now and then we"d get in jail, and we"d see the jailers looking through the windows being moved by our prayers, and being moved by our words and our songs. And there was a power there which Bull Connor couldn"t adjust to; and so we ended up transforming Bull into a steer, and we won our struggle in Birmingham. Now we"ve got to go on in Memphis just like that. I call upon you to be with us when we go out Monday.


Now about injunctions: We have an injunction and we"re going into court tomorrow morning to fight this illegal, unconstitutional injunction. All we say to America is, "Be true to what you said on paper." If I lived in China or even Russia, or any totalitarian country, maybe I could understand some of these illegal injunctions. Maybe I could understand the denial of certain basic First Amendment privileges, because they hadn"t committed themselves to that over there.


But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech.


Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right. And so just as I say, we aren"t going to let dogs or water hoses turn us around, we aren"t going to let any injunction turn us around. We are going on.


We need all of you. And you know what"s beautiful to me is to see all of these ministers of the Gospel. It"s a marvelous picture. Who is it that is supposed to articulate the longings and aspirations of the people more than the preacher? Somehow the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones. And whenever injustice is around he tell it. Somehow the preacher must be an Amos, and saith, "When God speaks who can but prophesy?" Again with Amos, "Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream." Somehow the preacher must say with Jesus, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me," and he"s anointed me to deal with the problems of the poor."


And I want to commend the preachers, under the leadership of these noble men: James Lawson, one who has been in this struggle for many years; he"s been to jail for struggling; he"s been kicked out of Vanderbilt University for this struggle, but he"s still going on, fighting for the rights of his people. Reverend Ralph Jackson, Billy Kiles; I could just go right on down the list, but time will not permit.


But I want to thank all of them. And I want you to thank them, because so often, preachers aren"t concerned about anything but themselves. And I"m always happy to see a relevant ministry.


It"s all right to talk about "long white robes over yonder," in all of its symbolism. But ultimately people want some suits and dresses and shoes to wear down here! It"s all right to talk about "streets flowing with milk and honey," but God has commanded us to be concerned about the slums down here, and his children who can"t eat three square meals a day. It"s all right to talk about the new Jerusalem, but one day, God"s preacher must talk about the new New York, the new Atlanta, the new Philadelphia, the new Los Angeles, the new Memphis, Tennessee. This is what we have to do.


Now the other thing we"ll have to do is this: Always anchor our external direct action with the power of economic withdrawal. Now, we are poor people. Individually, we are poor when you compare us with white society in America. We are poor. Never stop and forget that collectively -- that means all of us together -- collectively we are richer than all the nations in the world, with the exception of nine. Did you ever think about that?


After you leave the United States, Soviet Russia, Great Britain, West Germany, France, and I could name the others, the American Negro collectively is richer than most nations of the world. We have an annual income of more than thirty billion dollars a year, which is more than all of the exports of the United States, and more than the national budget of Canada. Did you know that? That"s power right there, if we know how to pool it.


We don"t have to argue with anybody. We don"t have to curse and go around acting bad with our words. We don"t need any bricks and bottles. We don"t need any Molotov cocktails. We just need to go around to these stores, and to these massive industries in our country, and say, "God sent us by here, to say to you that you"re not treating his children right. And we"ve come by here to ask you to make the first item on your agenda fair treatment, where God"s children are concerned.


Now, if you are not prepared to do that, we do have an agenda that we must follow. And our agenda calls for withdrawing economic support from you."


And so, as a result of this, we are asking you tonight, to go out and tell your neighbors not to buy Coca-Cola in Memphis. Go by and tell them not to buy Sealtest milk. Tell them not to buy -- what is the other bread? -- Wonder Bread. And what is the other bread company, Jesse? Tell them not to buy Hart"s bread. As Jesse Jackson has said, up to now, only the garbage men have been feeling pain; now we must kind of redistribute the pain.

We are choosing these companies because they haven"t been fair in their hiring policies; and we are choosing them because they can begin the process of saying they are going to support the needs and the rights of these men who are on strike. And then they can move on town -- downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right.


But not only that, we"ve got to strengthen black institutions. I call upon you to take your money out of the banks downtown and deposit your money in Tri-State Bank. We want a "bank-in" movement in Memphis. Go by the savings and loan association. I"m not asking you something that we don"t do ourselves at SCLC. Judge Hooks and others will tell you that we have an account here in the savings and loan association from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.


We are telling you to follow what we are doing. Put your money there. You have six or seven black insurance companies here in the city of Memphis. Take out your insurance there. We want to have an "insurance-in."


Now these are some practical things that we can do. We begin the process of building a greater economic base. And at the same time, we are putting pressure where it really hurts. I ask you to follow through here.


Now, let me say as I move to my conclusion that we"ve got to give ourselves to this struggle until the end.


Nothing would be more tragic than to stop at this point in Memphis. We"ve got to see it through. And when we have our march, you need to be there. If it means leaving work, if it means leaving school -- be there. Be concerned about your brother. You may not be on strike. But either we go up together, or we go down together.


Let us develop a kind of dangerous unselfishness. One day a man came to Jesus, and he wanted to raise some questions about some vital matters of life. At points he wanted to trick Jesus, and show him that he knew a little more than Jesus knew and throw him off base.... Now that question could have easily ended up in a philosophical and theological debate. But Jesus immediately pulled that question from mid-air, and placed it on a dangerous curve between Jerusalem and Jericho. And he talked about a certain man, who fell among thieves. You remember that a Levite and a priest passed by on the other side.


They didn"t stop to help him. And finally a man of another race came by. He got down from his beast, decided not to be compassionate by proxy. But he got down with him, administered first aid, and helped the man in need. Jesus ended up saying, this was the good man, this was the great man, because he had the capacity to project the "I" into the "thou," and to be concerned about his brother.


Now you know, we use our imagination a great deal to try to determine why the priest and the Levite didn"t stop. At times we say they were busy going to a church meeting, an ecclesiastical gathering, and they had to get on down to Jerusalem so they wouldn"t be late for their meeting. At other times we would speculate that there was a religious law that "One who was engaged in religious ceremonials was not to touch a human body twenty-four hours before the ceremony." And every now and then we begin to wonder whether maybe they were not going down to Jerusalem -- or down to Jericho, rather to organize a "Jericho Road Improvement Association."


That"s a possibility. Maybe they felt that it was better to deal with the problem from the causal root, rather than to get bogged down with an individual effect.


But I"m going to tell you what my imagination tells me. It"s possible that those men were afraid. You see, the Jericho road is a dangerous road. I remember when Mrs. King and I were first in Jerusalem. We rented a car and drove from Jerusalem down to Jericho. And as soon as we got on that road, I said to my wife, "I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable." It"s a winding, meandering road. It"s really conducive for ambushing. You start out in Jerusalem, which is about 1200 miles -- or rather 1200 feet above sea level. And by the time you get down to Jericho, fifteen or twenty minutes later, you"re about 2200 feet below sea level. That"s a dangerous road. In the days of Jesus it came to be known as the "Bloody Pass."


And you know, it"s possible that the priest and the Levite looked over that man on the ground and wondered if the robbers were still around. Or it"s possible that they felt that the man on the ground was merely faking. And he was acting like he had been robbed and hurt, in order to seize them over there, lure them there for quick and easy seizure. And so the first question that the priest asked -- the first question that the Levite asked was, "If I stop to help this man, what will happen to me?" But then the Good Samaritan came by. And he reversed the question: "If I do not stop to help this man, what will happen to him?"


That"s the question before you tonight. Not, "If I stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to my job. Not, "If I stop to help the sanitation workers what will happen to all of the hours that I usually spend in my office every day and every week as a pastor?" The question is not, "If I stop to help this man in need, what will happen to me?" The question is, "If I do not stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to them?" That"s the question.


Let us rise up tonight with a greater readiness. Let us stand with a greater determination. And let us move on in these powerful days, these days of challenge to make America what it ought to be. We have an opportunity to make America a better nation. And I want to thank God, once more, for allowing me to be here with you. You know, several years ago, I was in New York City autographing the first book that I had written. And while sitting there autographing books, a demented black woman came up.


The only question I heard from her was, "Are you Martin Luther King?" And I was looking down writing, and I said, "Yes." And the next minute I felt something beating on my chest. Before I knew it I had been stabbed by this demented woman. I was rushed to Harlem Hospital. It was a dark Saturday afternoon. And that blade had gone through, and the X-rays revealed that the tip of the blade was on the edge of my aorta, the main artery. And once that"s punctured, your drowned in your own blood -- that"s the end of you.


It came out in the New York Times the next morning, that if I had merely sneezed, I would have died. Well, about four days later, they allowed me, after the operation, after my chest had been opened, and the blade had been taken out, to move around in the wheel chair in the hospital.


They allowed me to read some of the mail that came in, and from all over the states and the world, kind letters came in. I read a few, but one of them I will never forget. I had received one from the President and the Vice-President. I"ve forgotten what those telegrams said. I"d received a visit and a letter from the Governor of New York, but I"ve forgotten what that letter said. But there was another letter that came from a little girl, a young girl who was a student at the White Plains High School. And I looked at that letter, and I"ll never forget it. It said simply,


"Dear Dr. King, I am a ninth-grade student at the White Plains High School."


And she said,


"While it should not matter, I would like to mention that I"m a white girl. I read in the paper of your misfortune, and of your suffering. And I read that if you had sneezed, you would have died. And I"m simply writing you to say that I"m so happy that you didn"t sneeze."


And I want to say tonight -- I want to say tonight that I too am happy that I didn"t sneeze. Because if I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been around here in 1960, when students all over the South started sitting-in at lunch counters. And I knew that as they were sitting in, they were really standing up for the best in the American dream, and taking the whole nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the Founding Fathers in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.


If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been around here in 1961, when we decided to take a ride for freedom and ended segregation in inter-state travel.


If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been around here in 1962, when Negroes in Albany, Georgia, decided to straighten their backs up. And whenever men and women straighten their backs up, they are going somewhere, because a man can"t ride your back unless it is bent.


If I had sneezed -- If I had sneezed I wouldn"t have been here in 1963, when the black people of Birmingham, Alabama, aroused the conscience of this nation, and brought into being the Civil Rights Bill.


If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have had a chance later that year, in August, to try to tell America about a dream that I had had.


If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been down in Selma, Alabama, to see the great Movement there.


If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been in Memphis to see a community rally around those brothers and sisters who are suffering.


I"m so happy that I didn"t sneeze.


And they were telling me --. Now, it doesn"t matter, now. It really doesn"t matter what happens now. I left Atlanta this morning, and as we got started on the plane, there were six of us.


The pilot said over the public address system, "We are sorry for the delay, but we have Dr. Martin Luther King on the plane. And to be sure that all of the bags were checked, and to be sure that nothing would be wrong with on the plane, we had to check out everything carefully. And we"ve had the plane protected and guarded all night."


And then I got into Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?


Well, I don"t know what will happen now. We"ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn"t matter with me now, because I"ve been to the mountaintop. And I don"t mind.


Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I"m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God"s will. And He"s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I"ve looked over. And I"ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land!


And so I"m happy, tonight.


I"m not worried about anything.


I"m not fearing any man.


Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.

真的很感謝你們,我的朋友們。 剛才我聽著 Ralph Abernathy 的一番頗具說服力的慷慨介紹,同時自忖了一番,我感到很疑惑, 他剛才說的是誰啊?(聽眾笑)能聽到你最親近的朋友和伙伴的贊揚,的確是件非常愉快的事 情。而 Ralph Abernathy 是我在這個世界上最好的朋友。 即便是在有暴風警告的情況下,今晚大家仍然能來這里,我真的很高興。這表明了你們不管發 生什么事情都要將運動堅定地進行下去的決心。現在孟菲斯(Memphis)就出了些問題,這個 世界也在接連不斷的出問題。 要知道,如果我站在時間的起點上,可以以一種鳥瞰的全景的眼光來瀏覽整個人類社會的歷史, 而全能的主對我說:“馬丁·路德·金,你想生活在哪個時代呢?”我會讓我的靈魂飛往埃及 (Egypt),去看看,在那里神之子離開埃及黑暗的土牢,并一路跟隨他們宏大莊嚴的遷徙,或 者甚至跟著他們一路跨過紅海(Red Sea),跋涉過蠻荒之地前往主所允諾的福地。【此一節講 的是圣經里的摩西帶領以色列人出埃及記】盡管這場景很壯觀,但我不愿就此打住。我會接著 來到希臘(Greece),讓思緒飛到奧林帕斯山(Mount Olympus),看看在帕臺農神殿(Parthenon) 里,柏拉圖(Plato 古希臘哲學家,代表作《理想國》)、亞里士多德(Aristotle 古希臘哲學家)、 蘇格拉底(Socrates 古希臘哲學家)、歐里庇得斯(Euripides 希臘的悲劇詩人,代表作《希波 呂托斯》、《美狄亞》)、阿里斯托芬(Aristophanes 古希臘詩人,喜劇作家,享有“喜劇之父”的美 名)齊聚一堂,看看他們在帕臺農神殿里一起討論偉大而不朽的真理(或者說‘實在’的各個議題)。 但我仍不會停住。我要繼續前行,甚至是來到羅馬帝國的全盛時代。我要看看在多位皇帝和領 袖的管理下,這里的所取得的發展。但我仍不會在此停留。我甚至還要到文藝復興 (Renaissance)時期去看一看。快速地瀏覽一遍文藝復興為人類生活中的文化和美學所帶來 的新的氣象。但我仍不會就此停步。我還要去那個人所處的時代,那個我以他的名字命名的人 所處的時代,再走一遍他所走的路,看看馬丁·路德將《九十五條》釘在威丁堡大學的教堂大門 上。但我還不愿住。我還要繼續穿行到1863年,看看那個猶豫不決的,名字叫做林肯的美國總 統,最終作出決定他必須簽署《解放宣言》。但我還不能住。我還要去30年代早期看看,看看 那個正努力解決他的國家的銀行破產問題的人,最終信心滿滿地呼喊道:除了恐懼本身,我們 沒有什么好恐懼的。【這個人說的是富蘭克林·羅斯福,這是他在1933年的第一次就職演說中的 話】但我還不愿就此留在這里。莫名其妙的地,我會對主說:“如果您允許我在20世紀的后半段 再活幾年的話,我就很滿足了。”呃,這真是很奇怪的要求啊,因為任誰都知道,當今世界無處 不在的是混亂騷動。而這個國家從內部出了問題,麻煩遍地,混亂無處不在,這真是奇怪的說 話呀!但是無論如何我知道,只有在天足夠黑的時候,星光才更加美麗。 我能看到上帝在20世紀所做的努力,然而,人類卻以一種很奇怪的方式予以抵消予以回應著。 這個世界確實出了問題。越來越多的人意識到這點他們站起來了,今天不管他們在哪里集會, 不論是在南非的約翰內斯堡(Johannesburg, South Africa)、還是在肯尼亞的首都內羅畢 (Nairobi, Kenya)、還是在加納的首都阿克拉 (Accra, Ghana)、紐約城(New York City)、 還是在佐治亞的首府亞特蘭大(Atlanta,Georgia)、還是在密西西比州的首府杰克遜(Jackson, Mississippi)、 還是田納西州的孟菲斯(Memphis, Tennessee),他們的呼喊總是一樣的,那 就是:“我們要自由!” 我很高興能夠活在當下的另外一個原因是,我們已經到了不得不正視那些,在整個人類歷史過 程中,人們一直試圖解決而沒能解決的問題的時候了,他們沒能解決那些難題是因為他們沒有 被逼到不得不做的地步。而如今我們要生存的話就必須解決這些問題。已經有好幾年了,人類 一直在談論戰爭與和平。但是現在僅僅是談論已經遠遠不夠了。在當今時尚,已經不再是在暴 力與非暴力之間的選擇了,現在的問題是要么非暴力,要么一起毀滅。這就是我們今天的處境。 并且,人權改革上也是如此,如果我們再不采取行動,而且盡快的,使這個世界上的有色人種 擺脫長年的貧窮,長年的痛苦,長年的被忽視的話,那我們所處的世界必定會走向末日。所以, 我很高興主讓我降生在這樣一個時代,可以親眼目睹這個時代所有的發生(切膚之言啊)。而 且,我也很高興他讓我來到了孟菲斯,我還記得,對的,我還記得以前,那個時候黑人們四處 奔走,然而,正如 Ralph 所經常說的,那個時候黑人根本就不成氣候,他們的游行是無關痛癢 的(scratching where they didn't itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. 這句不好翻 譯,不過大概意思應該是如此吧,希望高手可以給以指正。),但是那樣的時代已經徹底過去了, 我們現在已經今時不同往日了,我們決心在主的國度里爭取我們應得的權利,這也是我們所做 的所有事的終極目的。我們并不是要和什么人進行任何的消極的抗爭以及進行任何消極的爭 吵,我們只是想說我們要做人,我們只是決心要做真正的國民。我們只是想說----我們只是想說 我們都是主的子民,正因為如此正因為我們都是主的孩子,所以我們不要在壓迫下活下去。那 么在當今這樣一個偉大的歷史時期,我說的所有這些意味著什么呢?意味著我們得團結在一 起,我們要團結在一起而且要保持統一。要知道,在埃及當法老想要延長他的奴隸統治時,他 有他鐘愛的,鐘愛的一套手段,是什么呢?他讓奴隸們相互搏斗,但是一旦奴隸們聚在一處, 法老的宮廷就出了事,他奴役奴隸的日子也就到了頭。也就是說一旦奴隸們團結起來,奴隸制 度的終結也就開始了。現在就讓我們團結起來吧。 其次,讓我們看看到底有哪些問題。問題是不公平,問題是孟菲斯在相關事務的處理上,拒絕 公平和誠懇地對待他的公仆,他的環衛工人。現在,我們必須將注意力集中到這個問題上。這 種問題通常都會伴隨有一些暴力在里面,你們都知道前幾天發生的事情,而報紙上只輕描淡寫 地說到砸壞了窗戶。我看了這些文章,基本上都沒有注意到這樣一個事實,1300個環衛工人在 罷工,因為孟菲斯對他們很不公平,而且 Loeb 市長急需一位大夫幫他看看,他們沒有注意到 這樣的一個事實。所以,我們要再次游行,而且我們也必須游行,以促使這件事得到應有的公 平解決,而且,我們要讓大家愛看到有1300個上帝的孩子正在受難,他們經常挨餓,艱難地熬 過一個又一個黑暗可怕的夜晚,不知道這樣的日子什么時候是個頭,這就是我們面臨的問題。 我們必須告知政府:我們堅信,這個問題很快會得到應得的解決的。因為一旦人們意識到自己 所做的事是正確的,而且愿意為之犧牲的時候,不達勝利是不會罷休的。任何惡意的舉動都不 能使我們停步。在非暴力行進中,我們很成功的解除了警察的武力與警惕,他們不知道如何應 對,我經常看到他們茫然的神情。我還記得上次在阿拉巴馬州的伯明翰,那個時候在那場激烈 偉大的斗爭中,每天我們都要從第16街的浸禮會出發,我們成百上千地走上大街,而“公 牛”Connor(伯明翰的公共安全專員 July 11, 1897, Selma, Alabama,USA – March 10, 1973) 命令警察放狗,他們照做了,但是我們走到狗的面前說,“難道沒有人可以讓我們后退了嗎?”“公 牛”繼續道,“把消防水管打開。”正如某天晚上我跟你們說的,“公牛”不懂歷史,他是懂一點道 理,但是不會懂得我們所了解的精神戰勝(內在的一種力量)的。這種力量之火水是無法澆熄 的。于是我們走到水喉前,我們從來就了解水,如果我們是浸禮會教友或者別的教派,我們曾 受過水的沁潤,如果我們是衛理公會派教徒,或是其它什么教派的,我們曾被水潑灑過,但是 我們了解水,水并不能阻止我們。所以我們繼續前行,在狗前面,我們看著狗前進;在水喉前 面,我們看著水喉前進。同時我們還唱起“在我頭頂我看見了自由之光在那天穹中”。之后我們 會被帶到囚車里(在 NHK 映像的世紀中可以看到這種囚車)。有時候,我們會像罐頭里的沙丁 魚一樣被堆在里面,然而,他們還是會把我們塞進去。而老布爾會說:“把他們帶走。”他們也 這樣做了。而我們即便是進到囚車里,也仍一遍又一遍地高唱:“我們終將勝利。”時不時的我 們會被抓到監獄里,我們會看到監獄里的人被我們的祈祝,被我們的話語言談,被我們的歌聲 所打動,而望向監獄的窗外。這就是力量,這種力量是“公牛”所無法可想而予以打擊的。于是 我們最終讓“公牛”變成了閹牛。我們也贏得了我們在伯明翰的勝利。 接下來我們也要在孟菲斯這樣行動。所以,我希望大家在我們星期一游行的時候能加入我們。 現在我們來說說強制令。我們現在有個強制令,明天上午我們就要去法院,與這個不合法的, 不合章程的強制令作斗爭。而我們要跟美國說的是:“忠實于你在憲章上所說的一切。”要是我 活在中國、或者甚至俄國,抑或任何一個極權主義國家,或許我可以理解某些不合法的強制令, 也可以理解他們對第一修正法案中的對某些基本權利的剝奪。因為他們沒有申明那些權利與自 由。但是,在美國我讀到集會的自由,在美國我讀到演講的自由,在美國我讀到出版的自由, 在美國我讀到美國之所以偉大就在于它是捍衛一切正義的權威。因此,正如我所言,警犬和水 喉不能阻擋我們前進的步伐。我們也不會為任何所謂的強制令所阻撓。我們要繼續前行。我們 需要你們每一個人。要知道,能看到你們這些人,你們這些福音的傳布師們齊聚一堂,在我是 多么美妙的事啊,簡直就是一幅令人心馳神往的畫卷哪!除了牧師之外,還有什么樣的人能更 衷心而明確地表達人類內心深處的期待與渴望呢?然而,作為牧師骨子里必須有一股生命之 火。(這句不知道怎么翻譯:Somehow the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones.)一旦發現不公平的事,他必須說出來。不管怎么說,牧師必須像阿莫斯(Amos:圣 經里面的先知)一樣,說道,“當上帝傳道的時候誰能預言呢?”(這句不太懂 When God speaks who can but prophesy)還有,“讓正義如水般自然流淌,讓真理如快樂的小溪般奔流。”不管怎 么說,作為牧師他必須心存我主地說(say with Jesus),“主的靈光灑在我身上,因為他選定了 我,他選定了我去解決那些可憐的人的苦難。”這里,我要推薦一些高尚的人,希望牧師們能聽 從他們的領導:詹姆斯·羅生(James Lawson),他參與這場運動已有些年了,還被抓進了監獄, 并因此被馮德比爾特大學(Vanderbilt University)開除學籍。但它仍一如既往地參加斗爭,為 了他熱愛的人們能得到應有的權利而斗爭。教士拉爾夫·杰克森(Reverend Ralph Jackson), 比 利·奇利斯(Billy Kiles)。我還可以這樣一直列舉下去,但是時間不允許我這樣做。但是我很感 謝他們每一個人,并且,我也希望你們也能感謝他們,因為一直以來,牧師們除了提升自己的 修養之外,很少過問外界的事。能看到 A RELEVANT MINISTRY 我總是很高興。當然,我們 常說“很久遠的白長袍們”,這在象征意義上也沒有什么不好,但最終,眼下人們還是想穿我們 正穿著的套裝,衣服,鞋子什么的。我們總說,“街上流淌著滿是牛奶與蜂蜜”,這當然也不錯, 但是上帝同時也命令我們去關注一下這里的貧民窟,以及這些一天三餐都沒有著落的他的子 民。我們總在說新耶路撒冷,這當然也對,但遲早有一天,上帝的傳教士們,一定會講到新紐 約,新亞特蘭大,新費城,新洛杉磯,新孟菲斯的。這也是我們現在必須做的事情。 而眼下我們必須做的另外一件事是,一定要將我們的外部直接行動(即示威游行)與背后的經 濟支持牢牢掛鉤。以經濟的力量為后盾以保證游行的持續進行。當然,以單個人來講,我們是 很窮,和美國的白人社會相較起來,我們也確實很窮,但是不要忘了當我們湊合在一起,這意 味只要我們黑人團結一心,我們比世界上的任何國家都要富有,除了九國外(不知道什么意思 with the exception of nine)。這你有想過嗎?在除了美國、蘇聯、大不列顛、西德、法國,還 有其他幾個國家之后,黑人湊集起來,比世界上大多數國家都要有錢,我們每年的收入是300 多億美元,這比美國一年的出口總額還要多,比加拿大一年的財政預算還要多,這你知道嗎? 如果我們懂得如何共用分配的話,這是實實在在的力量。懂得這種力量之后,我們不必到處和 人爭論,我們不必漫天詛咒,不必四處危言恐嚇,我們不需要磚頭瓶子,不需要自制炸彈,我 們只需要到這些店鋪外,到這些大型工廠門口,說:“上帝讓我們過來這里,跟你說,你沒有公 平對待他的子民,而我們來這里正是要讓你把公平對待提上你的議事日程的第一項考慮。聽著, 要是你不打算這么做的話,我們也有個必須遵守的議事日程,那就是從你的經濟支持中退出。” 因此,由于這個原因,今晚我要求大家集會散場之后,告訴你的鄰居不要買孟菲斯的可口可樂, 順便告訴他們不要買 Sealtest 公司的牛奶,不要買---另外一種面包叫什么面包?---Wonder 牌 面包之外的?那家公司叫什么來著,Jesse 的?告訴他們不要買 Hart's 面包,因為杰斯·杰克遜 (Jesse Jackson)說過,目前為止,只有像垃圾一樣生活的人才會感到痛苦,我們現在也要 讓他嘗嘗痛苦的滋味。我們之所以選擇這幾家公司因為他們在雇用政策上很不公平。我們選擇 他們,是因為他們能開啟對話的進程,他們能滿足這些罷工的人的需求與權利。他們能到城里 到市中心,告訴 Loeb 市長怎樣做才是對的。 我們要做的還不僅僅如此,我們必須加強我們自己的公共機構,我要求你們把市中心的錢從銀 行里取出來,然后存到 Tri-State 銀行里,孟菲斯需要一場 bank-in 運動。所以,到儲蓄存款社 去,這些事情我們并不是只要求你們去做,我們自己在 SCLC 也同樣在做。Hooks 法官還有一 些相關的人會告訴你們我們在 SCLC 在儲蓄存款社的賬號。我們只是要求你們跟著我們做下去, 把你的錢存到里面。在孟菲斯有六、七家黑人保險公司,把你們在那兒的保險金取出來,我們 還需要一次 insurance-in 運動。 這里我們有幾件實際可行的事要做。我們正在建起一個更大的基金,而同時我們也在給政府制 造壓力,這壓力有分量足以使政府在行動時有所顧忌。我在這里要求你們跟著將之進行到底。 總之,請允許我跟你們說,我們必須投身這場斗爭中直至最終勝利。要知道沒有什么事情比半 途而廢更讓人悲哀的了,我們必須看到這場斗爭在孟菲斯取得勝利。并且,當我們在外游行的 時候,我們需要你的到場,即便是這意味著曠工,即便是這意味著曠課,請你一定要過來。多 關心你在罷工的黑人兄弟,可能你不在罷工,但是我們要么一起享受成功的喜悅,要么一起承 受失敗的痛苦。讓我們養成一種冒險的無私精神吧!有一天,有個人來到耶穌跟前,他想問一 些關于永生的很重要的問題,就此刁難耶穌,以表明他懂的比耶穌還要多,從而冷不防地難住 主耶穌。現在這個問題本可以簡單地用哲學和神學的論辯解答,但是耶穌當即將這個問題從虛 化的半空中拽了下來,然后將之放在了從耶路撒冷到耶利哥的危險的蜿蜒的山路上。他說,一 個人為一群盜賊洗劫與暴力,然后你們記得吧,一個利未人(Levite)和一個教士碰巧從另一 面經過,而他們都沒有停下來幫忙。之后,又來了一個別一族的人,他從坐騎上下來,決定不 能等到別人來幫助這個人(這句也不懂 decided not to be compassionate by proxy),而是來 到了那個受傷的人身邊,給予了急救,拯救了這個需要幫助的人。耶穌最后說道,“這樣才是好 人,這樣才是了不起的人啊!他有設身處地的心靈,能替別人著想。”我們運用我們的想象力努 力地揣度一下,為什么那個利未人和那個教士沒有停下來幫忙呢?通常我們會說他們正趕著參 加教會會議---基督教會的聚會---他們必須加緊前往耶路撒冷,那樣的話他們才不會遲到。而其 他的時候我們會考慮到,有一條宗教律令:“一個要參加宗教儀式的人,在儀式進行前24小時內 不能接觸人體。而偶爾我們又會猜想是否是這個原因:他們不是去耶路撒冷,也不是去耶利哥, 而是去組織一個“耶利哥道路改進會”。有這個可能性。或許他們認為從根本上解決問題,比以 個人努力反而陷入麻煩的泥沼要好。 但是我要告訴你們我的想象力給我的啟示。很可能其實是這些人都覺得害怕,你看,耶利哥之 路是一條危險的路途。我還記得我和我的妻子第一次到耶路撒冷的情形。我們租了一輛車然后 從耶路撒冷開往耶利哥,但我們上路之后,我就跟我妻子說道:“我現在明白為什么耶穌要拿這 條路來作比喻了。”這是一條蜿蜒曲折的道路,非常有利于埋伏,你從耶路撒冷出發,這大約是 1200英里,也即海平面以上1200英尺。而當15或者20分鐘之后,你到達耶利哥時,你卻在海 平面以下2200英尺。那真是一條危險的路途啊!在耶穌的時代,它就以“血腥之途(Bloody Pass)” 而為人所知。而且你知道,可能那個利未人和那個教士檢查了地上的那個人,而懷疑那些盜賊 是否仍在附近,抑或是他們認為這個人僅僅是在偽裝,他只是裝作被搶劫了被打傷了,目的是 為了抓住他們,引誘他們從而快速而簡單的捉住他們。所以那個利未人的第一個問題是:如果 我停下來幫助這個人的話,有什么事會發生在我身上?但是接著那個好心的撒瑪利亞人 (Samaritan)過來了,他顛倒著這個問題:如果我不停下來幫助這個人的話他會怎么樣?這 就是今晚擺在我們面前的問題,不是“如果我停下來幫助這些環衛工人的話,我的工作會有什么 影響?”不是“如果我停下來幫助這些環衛工人的話,那些我作為一個牧師花在辦公室里的一天 接一天,一個禮拜接一個禮拜的時間會怎么樣?”問題不是:“如果我幫助了這個需要幫助的人, 我會怎么樣?”問題是:“如果我不幫助這些環衛工人的話,他會怎么樣?”這才是我們的問題。 今晚讓我們以更高的積極性起來反抗吧!讓我們以更大的決心站起來!讓我們在這偉大的時代 繼續前行,在這有機會使美國成為真正的美國的時代!我們有這樣一個機會使美國成為一個更 好的國家!同時,我要再一次感謝仁慈的主,讓我能和你們在一起前行! 你們應該知道,幾年前,那時我在紐約,為我的第一本書簽名,當我坐在那里簽名的時候,一 個精神有問題的黑人婦女過來了,我聽到他問的唯一一個問題就是:“你是馬丁路德金嗎?”但 是我正埋頭簽名,我回答道:“是啊。”接著下一秒我就感覺到我的胸部被什么東西刺中了,在 我意識到的時候我已經被這個精神有問題的婦女刺中了。我即刻被送到了 Harlem 醫院,這是 一個黑沉沉的禮拜六的下午。那柄刀穿透了我的胸部,通過 X 光片可以看到刀刃正好從主動脈 的邊緣穿過,一旦主動脈被刺穿,你就會被你的血所淹沒,也就是你的生命將終結。第二天早 上紐約時報上登出來了,如果我打了噴嚏的話,我就會死掉。四天之后,在手術之后,在我的 胸口被打開刀刃被取出來之后,他們允許我坐在輪椅上在醫院里四處走走,他們允許我看一些 從美國乃至世界各地郵寄來的信件,善意的來信。我看了一些,但是只有一封我永遠都不會忘 記。我收到了一封總統先生和副總統先生的來信,但我已經忘了信上說了什么了。我還接受了 紐約市長的訪問以及他的一封信,我也幾經忘了這封信上說的什么了。但是有一封信,來自一 個小姑娘,她在白原高校(White Plains High School)念書,我看了那封信,我終生難忘。信 很簡單:“親愛的金博士:我是一個在白原高校廿九年級的學生,”她說,“這雖然沒有什么關系, 但我還是要說出來,我是個白人女孩,我在報紙上看到你的不幸,你的遭遇。并且我讀到如果 你打了噴嚏的話,就會死掉,而我寫這封信給你其實只是想告訴你,我真的很高興你沒有打噴 嚏。” 今晚我想說,今晚,我想說,我也很高興我沒有打噴嚏,因為如果那個時候我打了噴嚏的話, 1960年我就不會出現在這里,當時整個南部的(黑人)學生開始了在午餐臺邊坐著吃飯,而我 知道當他們可以坐著吃飯的時候,他們正真正抬起頭來實現著美國夢中最美妙的精神。他們帶 著整個國家回歸到偉大的民主的源泉,這源泉由建國者們在《獨立宣言》和《憲法》中深深挖 掘。那個時候我打了噴嚏的話,1961年,我不會出現在這里,那時我們決定搭上自由之車,終 止在州與州之間旅行時存在的隔離。如果那個時候我打了噴嚏的話,1962年我不會出現在這里, 當時,在佐治亞的奧爾巴尼,人們決定挺直他們的腰桿,而一旦人們挺直了腰板,他們才會有 所建樹,因為人不能扛著背前行,除非他的背斷掉了。如果那個時候我打了噴嚏的話,1963年 我不會出現在這里,那時,阿拉巴馬伯明翰的黑人們喚起了這個國家的良知,使民權法案獲得 了通過。如果那個時候我打了噴嚏的話,1964年我不會有機會告訴美國我一直以來的一個夢想。 如果那個時候我打了噴嚏的話,我不會在阿拉巴馬塞爾瑪目睹一場偉大的運動。如果那個時候 我打了噴嚏的話,我不會在孟菲斯看到一個團結了那么多飽受苦難的兄弟姐妹的社團。我真的 很高興我沒有打噴嚏。 而他們告訴我---現在,沒有什么關系了現在,真的,不管現在發生什么都沒有關系了。今天早 上,我離開亞特蘭大,當我們登上飛機時,我們有六個人,飛行員通過擴音裝置說道,真的很 抱歉耽誤到了大家的時間,但是我們現在有馬丁·路德·金博士在飛機上,為了確保所有的袋子, 包都檢查到,為了確保飛機不會有任何故障。我們得認真檢查所有的東西。我們昨晚整晚都在 保護防衛這架飛機。然后,我來到了孟菲斯。而有一些人就開始談論存在的威脅,或談論外在 的威脅,我們的病態的白人兄弟會對我采取什么樣的報復。 呃,我不知道現在會發生什么事。我們前面還有一段艱難的路要走。但是對我來說,真的已經 沒有什么關系了。因為我已登上了人生的頂巔,我不介意別的事情了。像你們每個人一樣,我 也想活得長久一點,長壽當然有它吸引人的地方。但是對此我已不再介意了。我只想完成上帝 給予我的意愿。是他讓我登上了人生的頂巔,我已經四處都檢視過了,我已看到了上帝允諾我 們的福地。可能我不能同你們一道到達那里,但是今晚我要你們知道,作為一個民族我們一定 會抵達上帝所允諾的福地。所以今晚我很開心,我已經無所畏懼了,我也不怕任何人的迫害, 因為我的雙眼已清楚感受到了上帝降下的靈光!!

 
 
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