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從時差作弊到花錢代考:美國大學招生丑聞簡史
A History of College Admissions Schemes, From Encoded Pencils to Paid Stand-Ins

[2019年3月20日] 來源:紐約時報 作者:ADEEL HASSAN   字號 [] [] []  


在1990年代的一起招生舞弊案中,哥倫比亞大學是收到過虛假考試成績的學校之一。

Fifty people were charged this week with taking part in a nationwide scheme to game the process of admission to highly competitive schools. While federal authorities say that this is the largest prosecution of its kind in history, it is far from the first.

本周,50人被控為了進入競爭激烈的高校,而參與了一起全國性的招生舞弊案。雖然聯邦當局稱,這是同類案件史上規模最大的一次起訴,但絕非第一次。

Here’s a look back at five other times manipulation of the admissions process caused a scandal:

下面,就來看看另外五次的招生丑聞:

The Time-Zone Quirk

時差作弊怪招

It was an ingenious and audacious idea: pay expert test takers to memorize answers in New York and then phone them to Los Angeles and Chicago, where the tests had not been taken yet. The answers were then carved in code on the sides of pencils being used to take the same tests, the Graduate Management Admission Test, the Graduate Record Exam, and the Test of English as a Foreign Language.

這是個絕妙又大膽的想法:付錢讓紐約的專業“槍手”背下答案,然后打電話給尚未開考的洛杉磯和芝加哥。答案隨后用代碼刻在鉛筆的側面,涉及的考試包括管理學科研究生入學考試(GMAT)、研究生入學考試(GRE)和托福考試(TOEFL,英語作為外語的教學考試)。

Between 1992 and 1996, several hundred people took advantage of the time differences, paying between $2,000 and $9,000, depending on how high the desired score was. The students were flown or driven to test centers, where they were given pencils with the coded answers. Hundreds of students received high scores and were admitted to graduate schools around the country, prosecutors said.

1992年至1996年,有數百人曾利用時差作弊,根據期望分數的高低,花費在2000美元至9000美元不等。考生被飛機或汽車送至考場,在那里領取帶編碼答案的鉛筆。檢察官稱,數百名學生由此獲得高分,而進入全國各地的研究生院。


長島大頸北高中,2011年這里啟動了一項作弊調查。

The mastermind of the scheme, Po Chieng Ma, was sentenced in 1998 to four years in prison.

這起舞弊案的主謀馬白景(Po Chieng Ma,音)于1998年被判四年監禁。

Columbia University, New York University, Fordham University and Hunter College, all in New York, were among the schools receiving fraudulent scores, the indictment said.

起訴書稱,哥倫比亞大學(Columbia University)、紐約大學(New York University)、福坦莫大學(Fordham University)、亨特學院(Hunter College)均收到過不真實的成績(這些學校都位于紐約)。

“This obsession with test scores, as indicated by this case, underscores the importance of getting a fuller picture of candidates than can be gleaned from just looking at standardized tests,” said George E. Rupp, the president of Columbia at the time.

“對考試分數的倚重,正如在該案所表明的,突顯了全面考察申請人的重要性,而不能僅僅憑標準化考試成績招生,”時任哥倫比亞大學校長的喬治·E·魯普(George E. Rupp)說。

Paying Someone Else to Take the Test

花錢請人代考

Twenty students were arrested on Long Island in 2011 for accepting payment or paying others to take the SAT and ACT between 2008-11.

2011年,長島有20名學生因為在2008年至2011年間收受賄款或花錢請他人代考SAT和ACT而被捕。

Administrators at Great Neck North High School began an inquiry after a student confided to a college counselor that someone was accepting money to take the SAT for other students. They decided to focus on students who had registered to take the tests outside the district and also compared SAT scores with student grade-point averages.

在一名學生向升學顧問透露有人在收錢代考SAT后,長島大頸北高中(Great Neck North High School)展開了一項調查。校方決定把重點放在報名在區外參加考試的考生,并將SAT分數與學生的平均績點進行了比對。

Some of the widest discrepancies were with students who chose to take the test off-site, where they would not be recognized. The test takers used fake identification cards.

差異最大的是一些選擇在其他考區參加考試的學生,他們在那里不會被認出。這些考生用的是假身份證。

The group of 20 were from five schools: Five of them were suspected of taking tests for others and the other 15 were accused of paying them $500 to $3,600 to take the tests. Students who signed up could pay in installments. One of the test takers was Samuel Eshaghoff, a graduate of Great Neck North, who even took tests for girls.

這20名學生來自5所學校:其中5人涉嫌替他人考試,另外15人被控付給他們500美元至3600美元的代考費。報名參加的人還可以分期付款。其中一名代考者是大頸北畢業的塞繆爾·伊沙格豪夫(Samuel Eshaghoff),他甚至替女生參加考試。


用中性姓名幫女生替考的塞繆爾·伊沙格豪夫。

“I thought that there was an easy way to make money,” he said later on “60 Minutes.” “And just like any other easy way to make money, it’s always too good to be true.”

“我覺得那樣賺錢很輕松,”他后來在《60分鐘》(60 Minutes)節目上說。“就跟其他天上掉餡餅的事情一樣,它好到讓人難以置信。”

The scheme prompted a requirement that students provide a photograph when they sign up for college entrance exams, and that officials check those images against the test takers’ ID.

該案催生了一項要求,即考生在報名參加大學入學考試時,必須提供照片,官員也必須將所提交的照片與考生的身份證進行比對。

Fairy-Tale Applications

童話般的申請


位于路易斯安那州布羅布里奇的蘭德利大學預備學校。

T.M. Landry, a small school in small-town Louisiana, had gained national attention for sending its underprivileged black students to elite colleges, including Yale, Brown, Princeton, Stanford, Columbia, Dartmouth, Cornell and Wesleyan. It produced its first graduating class in 2013.

T·M·蘭德里(T.M. Landry)是路易斯安那州一座小鎮上一間規模不大的學校,因為把貧困的黑人學生送到耶魯、布朗、普林斯頓、斯坦福、哥倫比亞、達特茅斯、康奈爾和衛斯理等名校而受到全國關注。2013年,該校培養了第一批畢業班學生。

But The New York Times reported last year that the school falsified transcripts, made up student accomplishments and trafficked in the worst stereotypes of black America to manufacture Cinderella stories.

但《紐約時報》去年報道,該校偽造成績單,編造學生成就,販賣對美國黑人最惡劣的刻板印象,大量炮制灰姑娘的故事。

The Landrys, the husband-and-wife team that led the school, were also accused of physical and emotional abuse by students and teachers. One student interviewed said that he did not know that the school had lied on his behalf, while others were told to lie on their applications.

領導這所學校的蘭德里夫婦也被師生指控存在身體和精神虐待行為。一名接受采訪的學生表示,他不知道學校代表他撒了謊,也有人稱,他們被告知在申請書上撒謊。

While some Landry graduates were successful, others had to withdraw from college, or transfer to less rigorous programs because of a lack of preparation.

雖然蘭德里的一些畢業生取得了成功,但也有一些人因為缺乏準備而不得不退學,或者轉到不那么嚴格的專業。

The Landrys denied fabricating student stories, and the school is still operating.

蘭德里夫婦否認編造學生故事,該校目前仍在運營。

Special Consideration for the Politically Connected

對有政治關系的人給予特殊考慮


優先錄取不合要求、卻是富人和權貴人士子女的申請者一事遭到曝光后,B·約瑟夫·懷特辭去了伊利諾伊大學校長一職。

While it is no surprise that admissions offices have ways for top administrators and prominent alumni to signal their interest in applicants, a Chicago Tribune investigation in 2009 revealed a “clout list” of those who got special consideration because of political connections.

盡管招生辦公室有很多辦法讓高層管理者和知名校友表明他們感興趣的申請者(這并不令人意外),但《芝加哥論壇報》(Chicago Tribune)2009年一項調查披露的“影響力名單”還是讓人大跌眼鏡,名單上是因為政治關系而獲得特殊考慮的人。

The scheme was known internally as Category I, and The Tribune said that 800 applicants won spots at the flagship Urbana-Champaign campus after intervention from state lawmakers and university trustees. The newspaper said the students were admitted even though some did not meet the university’s admission standards.

該計劃在內部被稱為“第一類”,《論壇報》稱,在州議員和大學董事會成員的干預下,800名申請者贏得了旗艦校厄巴納-香檳分校的入學名額。該報稱,有些學生沒有達到錄取標準,但還是被錄取了。

A state commission’s inquiry concluded that Category I was a sophisticated shadow admissions process for applicants who were supported by politicians, donors and other prominent sponsors.

一個州委員會通過調查得出結論,“第一類”是一個復雜的影子招生過程,專門為那些得到政客、捐贈者和其他知名贊助商支持的申請者設立。

According to internal documents and email messages released to the panel, university officials fretted about the university’s decline in national rankings as a result of admitting unqualified students, even as they encouraged the special treatment.

根據提交給該委員會的內部文件和電子郵件信息,校方雖然鼓勵這種特殊待遇,但也對該校因招收不合格學生而導致的全國排名下降感到擔憂。

The university’s president and the chancellor of the flagship campus, as well as a majority of the members of the university’s board, resigned after the commission’s report.

在委員會的報告發布后,該校校長、旗艦校區校長以及該校董事會的大多數成員辭職。

A Front-Page Answer Key

首頁上的答案


在考試答案上了《紐約郵報》頭版后,一個全州考試被取消。

On the day in June 1989 that 80,000 high school students in New York were to take a state-administered chemistry exam, The New York Post published the answers to the stolen test on its front page.

1989年6月,紐約州有8萬名高中生要參加一場全州化學考試。當天,《紐約郵報》(New York Post)在頭版刊登了失竊的試題答案。

The Post said that it published the answer key to the multiple-choice test after learning that thousands of photocopies of the answers had been illegally sold to students in New York City.

《郵報》表示,在得知數以千計的答案復印件非法出售給紐約市的學生后,他們公布了多選題的答案。

The test is one of the many state-sponsored Regents examinations, whose results are a factor in course grades and college admissions.

該考試是眾多由州資助的會考之一,其結果會影響課程成績和大學錄取。

State education officials said that the answer sheet on the front page appeared to have been sent by fax in the morning to students in upstate New York.

州教育官員表示,刊登在頭版的答案似乎是在早上通過傳真發給紐約州北部學生的。

In addition to chemistry, other stolen tests included those for United States history, global studies and 10th-grade mathematics. It was only the second time in the 111-year history of the Regents that an exam had been canceled, The Times reported.

除了化學,其他答案被盜的考試還包括美國歷史、全球研究和10年級數學。據《時報》報道,這是該會考111年歷史上第二次取消考試。

The Post’s editor at the time, Jerry Nachman, said that the front page showed the pervasive corruption surrounding the test. “These weren’t the Pentagon papers,” he said of the 56-question answer key. “What made the story was not the uniqueness of the documents, but their omnipresence.”

《郵報》時任主編杰里·納克曼(Jerry Nachman)說,頭版刊登答案是為了表明這項考試存在普遍的腐敗。“這些不是五角大樓文件,”他在談到這56個問題的答案時表示。“我們發這個不是因為這些文件有多獨特,而是因為它們太普遍了。”

翻譯:李建芳、晉其角

 
 
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